Ethical Business Conduct

The Board monitors the ethical conduct of the Company and ensures that it complies with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, such as those of relevant securities commissions and stock exchanges. The Board has found that the fiduciary duties placed on individual directors by the Company’s governing corporate legislation and the common law, as well as the restrictions placed by applicable corporate legislation on the individual director’s participation in decisions of the Board in which the director has an interest, have been sufficient to ensure that the Board operates independently of management and in the best interests of the Company.

Audit Committee Charter


The primary function of the audit committee (the "Committee") is to assist the Board of Directors in fulfilling its financial oversight responsibilities by reviewing the financial statements and other financial information provided by the Company to regulatory authorities and shareholders, the Company's systems of internal controls regarding finance and accounting and the Company's auditing, accounting and financial reporting processes. The Company’s external auditors must report directly to the Committee. The Committee's primary duties and responsibilities are to:

(i) Serve as an independent and objective party to monitor the Company's financial reporting and internal controls system and review the Company's financial statements;

(ii) Review and appraise the performance of the Company's external auditors; and

(iii) Provide an open avenue of communication among the Company's auditors, financial and senior management and the Board of Directors.


The Committee shall be comprised of three directors as determined by the Board of Directors, the majority of whom are not employees, control persons (as defined by the BC Securities Act), or officers of the Company or its associates or affiliates. Ideally, all members of the Committee shall be free from any relationship that, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, would interfere with the exercise of his independent judgment as a member of the Committee. At least one member of the Committee shall have accounting or related financial management expertise. All members of the Committee that are not financially literate should work towards becoming financially literate to obtain a working familiarity with basic finance and accounting practices. For the purposes of the Charter, the definition of "financially literate" is the ability to read and understand a set of financial statements that present a breadth and level of complexity of accounting issues that are generally comparable to the breadth and complexity of the issues that can presumably be expected to be raised by the Company's financial statements. The Committee must comply with the requirements of Multilateral Instrument 52-110 and British Columbia Instrument 52-509.

The members of the Committee shall be elected by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual shareholders' meeting. Unless a Chair is elected by the full Board of Directors, the members of the Committee may designate a Chair by a majority vote of the full Committee membership.


The Committee shall meet a least 4 times annually, or more frequently as circumstances dictate, in person or by telephone conference call.

Responsibilities and Duties

To fulfill its responsibilities and duties, the Committee shall:

Documents/Reports Review

(a) Review and, as necessary or appropriate, update the Charter annually.

(b) Review the Company's annual and interim financial statements, MD&A and any earnings press releases before the Company publicly discloses this information and any reports or other financial information, which are submitted to any governmental body, or to the public, including any certification, report, opinion, or review rendered by the external auditors.

External Auditors

(a) Annually review the performance of the external auditors who shall be ultimately accountable to the Board of Directors and the Committee as representatives of the shareholders of the Company.

(b) Recommend to the Board of Directors the selection and, where applicable, the replacement of the external auditors nominated annually for shareholder approval.

(c) Review with management and the external auditors the audit plan for the year-end financial statements.

(d) Review and pre-approve all audit and audit-related services and the fees and other compensation related thereto, and any non-audit services, provided by the Company's external auditors.

Provided the pre-approval of the non-audit services is presented to the Committee's first scheduled meeting following such approval, such authority may be delegated by the Committee to one or more independent members of the Committee.

Financial Reporting Processes

(a) In consultation with the external auditors, review with management the integrity of the Company's financial reporting process, both internal and external.

(b) Consider the external auditors' judgments about the quality and appropriateness of the Company's accounting principles as applied in its financial reporting.

(c) Consider and approve, if appropriate, changes to the Company's auditing and accounting principles and practices as suggested by the external auditors and management.

(d) Following completion of the annual audit, review separately with management and the external auditors any significant difficulties encountered during the course of the audit, including any restrictions on the scope of work or access to required information.

(e) Review any significant disagreement among management and the external auditors in connection with the preparation of the financial statements.

(f) Review with the external auditors and management the extent to which changes and improvements in financial or accounting practices have been implemented.

(g) Review any complaints or concerns about any questionable accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters.

(h) Establish a procedure for the confidential, anonymous submission by employees of the Company of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters.